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Thông báo / Tạp chí Khoa học Biến đổi khí hậu
JOURNAL OF CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCE NO.15-2020
Thứ hai, 02/11/2020

Journal Climate Change Science No.15 - 2020
Link/files/doc/tapchibiendoikhihau/ban web so tieng anh 15ban ngay2.11-pages-1-2-merged-compressed.pdf
 

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ASSESSMENT OF WATER GOVERNANCE CAPACITY AND PRIORITY ACTIONS FOR SESAN-SREPOK RIVER BASIN,
VIET NAM

Do Thi Ngoc Bich, Nguyen Cao Don, Vo Ha Duong, 
Nguyen Thuy Dung, Nguyen Hoang Bach
Water Resources Institute

Received 17 May 2020; Accepted: 15 June 2020

Abstract: Improved water governance supports important social, economic, and environmental objectives. The existence of organizational and legal frameworks, the level of coherence between various actors, the knowledge by stakeholders of the texts in force and their attributions, roles, duty and right, and others are essential perspectives to be considered in water governance assessment. This paper offers a general assessment of water governance capacity in the Sesan - Srepok River basin. It gives an overview of the main water governance issues and a description of the assessment of water governance capacity which provide a basis to further development of related policies and reformations for the Sesan - Srepok River basin. The mobilization of experts from different disciplines and their interests for this study on water governance were the key factor determining the outcome of the research. The tool used for the synthesis (scorecard) enables a synthetic grasp on these complicated issues.

Keywords: water governance effectiveness, scorecard, IWRM.

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STUDY ON CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE TRUONG GIANG RIVER, QUANG NAM PROVINCE

Mai Trong Hoang(1,2) , Tran Van Thuy(2)
Nguyen Dang Giap(3), Nguyen Le Tuan(4)
(1)Viet Nam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change
(2)Faculty of Environmental Sciences, VNU University of Science
(3)Key Laboratory of River and Coastal Engineering, Viet Nam Academic for Water Resources
(4)Viet Nam Institute of Seas and Island, Viet Nam Administration of Seas and Islands

Received: 23 July 2020; Accepted: 20 August

Abstract: The paper presents the study on environmental carrying capacity of Truong Giang River, Quang Nam province for BOD and NH4+, in the dry season (from April to June) and rainy season (from October to December) in 2017. The study used MIKE 21 model to simulate water quality and assess the carrying capacity of Truong Giang River by three different scenarios. Results show that, for the Scenario 1, all 4 river-sections of Truong Giang River were no longer able to withstand the load of BOD and NH4+. In particular, the section I had the best carrying capacity, followed by the section IV and section III, and the lowest one was the section II. For the Scenario 2, all 4 river-sections were still capable of receiving pollutants, except for BOD in section II and III in the rainy season. For the Scenario 3 with a warning meaning, in order to meet the minimum requirements of water quality to ensure the functions of the water source, it is necessary to limit the amount of pollution load discharged into the river by 1.94 times of BOD and 2.45 times of NH4+ compared to its of the year 2017. This result lays the foundation for further research on solutions to increase self-purification ability and improve water quality in the Truong Giang River.

Keywords: Carrying capacity, pollutants, Truong Giang River, Quang Nam province.

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BUILDING A FLOOD WARNING AND FORECAST SYSTEM
IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL VIET NAM

Tran Tuan Hoang(1), Pham Thanh Long(1)
Nguyen Thao Hien(1), Le Van Phan(2)
(1)Sub-Institute of HydroMeteorology and Climate Change
(2)Ho Chi Minh city University of Agriculture and Forestry

Received: 21 July 2020; Accepted: 18 August 2020

Abstract: To raise the efficiency of warning and flood forecasting of forecasters at the Meteorological and Hydrological Station in the South Central region, Viet Nam. A system of meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic measurement stations has been installed throughout the studied area including 10 basins in 5 provinces with more than 114 stations. Data from these stations are automatically transmitted to the server associated with a model system for calculating flood levels and flood maps, then be uploaded to WebGIS. The combination of online data and WebGIS can provide immediated flood warning information; while the WRF weather forecast model system combines the MIKE FLOOD forecasting model to create flood forecast maps for river basins in the South Central region updated on the WebGIS. Users can, thus, refer to flood spots, flood statistics and download updated data from this website. The system has also helped forecasters entering data in advance and creating faster outputs. Results have helped departments and agencies make timely decisions in disaster prevention.

Keywords: Forecast and warning system, WRF, MIKE models, WebGIS, South Central of Viet Nam.

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STUDY ON OPTIMIZING SURFACE WATER ALLOCATION TO LOWER VU GIA – THU BON RIVER BASIN UNDER WATER 
SCARCITY AND DROUGHT CONTEXT

Than Van Don(1), Tong Ngoc Thanh(1), La Van Chu(2)
(1)National Center for Water Resources Planning and Investigation (NAWAPI)
(2)Viet Nam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change (IMHEN)

Received: 8 July 2020; Accepted: 6 August 2020

Abstract: Over the past few years, water scarcity and droughts have always been occurring in the Vu Gia - Thu Bon River basin, causing conflict water users. Water demand has also increased. Information and data on potential, the amount of water that can be allocated by 11 regions were used for calculating current water demand in 2014 and these by 2030, thereby determining the simulation model method (WEAP model) for allocating surface water resources to households exploiting and using water in the Vu Gia - Thu Bon River basin. The results showed that water demands of households are basically metcorresponding to inflow accounting for 85% (in 1998) of water demands in 2014 and of that by 2030, followed by sets of priority order and percent of water supplies. The total does not meet water demands corresponding to inflows 85% and 99% of water demands are 78.46 mil m3 and 101.19 mil m3, which is significantly less than existing water supplies plan with 146.99 mil m3. This results in the conflicts in water use, decreasing water degradation and maintaining environmental stability of the river.

Keywords: Surface water allocation, Water scarcity, Droughts, Vu Gia - Thu Bon River basin.

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A REVIEW OF PROJECT RANKING AND CLASSIFICATION SCHEME IN CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH, STRIVING TOWARDS
A SYSTEMATIC RESEARCH IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN VIET NAM

Nguyen Tuan Quang(1), Huynh Thi Lan Huong(2)
Nguyen Xuan Hien(2)Tran Van Tra(2), Cung Hong Viet(2)
(1)Department of Climate Change, Viet Nam Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment
(2)Viet Nam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change, Viet Nam Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Received: 2 July 2020; Accepted: 7 August

Abstract: Climate change is expected to have negative impacts on earth environmental systems. Given the impacts, there has been a tremendous amount of research on the topic of climate change. From the research, a large volume of information has been provided, yet, lack a systematic organization. Therefore, research project ranking and classification form an important part for project transfer and dissemination. Research in the past attempted to create frameworks grading outputs, effectiveness, and efficiencies of research projects. Specifically, these frameworks are used to analyze organizations, studies, topics, projects, programs with their process of reaching its objectives; how their outputs interact with related factors and achieving the final goal; or how are they supposed to be applied into practical problems effectively, etc. This has been adopted in Viet Nam, however, the frameworks are still limited in its complexity and opted for more simplicity. In light of the National Research Program on Climate Change, Natural Resources and Environmental Management (NRPCRE) for the period 2011-2015 and 2016-2020, research projects on the topic of climate change has been conducted. Although information has been sorted, there is still a lack of collection and classification through a synchronic process. Hence, a comprehensive framework has been adopted in this study, based on the fundamental theory of efficiency, effectiveness. In this specific case study, 48 projects of NRPCRE 2011-2015 are ranked and classified, 04 of them are chosen for their outstanding results presented in the final total points (FTPs). This framework in our study might be uncomplicated, though, it is assumed as the most suitable version compare to recent available sources of information.

Keywords: Climate change, project classification, project ranking, framework.

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GLOBAL SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE 
ARTICLES: A BIBLIOMETRICS ANALYSIS

Nguyen Thu Minh, Nguyen Thanh Tuong, Ngo Kim Anh
Center for Environmental Research, Viet Nam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate change, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Received: 10 July 2020; Accepted: 4 August 2020

Abstract: This research used Bibliometrics and spatial distribution to describe science research productivities in patterns of article types, country, and journal via climate change articles on SCI during 2007-2018. In 25278 articles on climate change field, total research publication and article form is increasingly from 2007 to 2018. Total research productivity increases sharply in 2018 year, gains to 3325 articles and 2800 article forms in 2018 year. Moreover, article form is the highest research production gaining 19917 articles (1st ranking). USA is a country, where has the highest publication outputs in all the article types and in total research productivity (23286 articles with 1st ranking) including 5369 independent articles (23.06%) and 17917 collaborative articles (76.94%). CLIMATIC CHANGE journal has the most research outputs with 1105 articles (4.37%), 1st ranking, and it increases sharply in the last years. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE journal have not any research output in first years of publication period. This paper found out 163 countries in climate change article publication, whereas Vietnam is ranked the 45th with 159 articles (0.63%) including 33 independent articles (50th ranking, 20.8%) and 126 collaborative articles (44th ranking, 79.2%); and on the world map, Vietnam is performed by light blue color. Additionally, the map also shows that the research productivity is almost revealed on all countries with different research productivity quantities. The countries have high publication, are located highly in USA, Canada, Europe community, and some Asian countries (e.g. China, India, etc.). They are categorized into 5 ranks from low to high amount of publication and be colorized respectively. For example, independent publication is showed from small red round dot to big one, and cooperative publication is performed in different colors, in which USA has the most publications in dark blue and big red do. This paper, therefore, revealed science growth, research publishing trend, and spatial distribution of countries on climate change articles, and it also provides knowledge as well as more understanding about climate change field.

Keywords: Climate change, Bibliometrics, Spatial Distribution.

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ASSESSING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CLIMATE CHANGE 
ADAPTATION MODELS IN THE MEKONG DELTA

Dang Ngoc Diep(1), Le Ngoc Cau(2), Pham Thi Quynh(2)
Le Van Quy(2), Pham Van Sy(2)
(1)Ministry of Natural Resource and Environmental
(2)Viet Nam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate change

Received: 2 July 2020; Accepted: 4 August 2020

Abstract: The Mekong Delta is considered the largest granary of Viet Nam since most of its cultivated area is continuously supplied by annual alluvium which is significantly fertile and suitable for rice development. However, the region has been highly suffering from climate change such as sea level rise, inundation, salinity intrusion, and erosion which are seriously threatening to agriculture development, food security, and causing damage to social-economic region. As an adaptation to impacts of climate change, many new economic models have been applied in some regions of Mekong delta, and gradually brought certain efficiency in terms of economy such as mangrove cultivating seedling garden (Vuon uom), large rice-field, and rice-fish system. In order to apply and replicate these models for other regions in the Mekong delta, it is necessary to have comprehensive assessments on such aspects as ability on climate change adaptation, climate change mitigation, ensuring efficiency and sustainability in line with environment, economy and society. This paper presents approach for formulating and defining a set of criteria used for assessing climate change adaptation models in the Mekong Delta. The results show that all economic models highly adapt to climate change and bring high economic benefits. However, the applicability of some economic models is still limited.

   Keywords: Climate change adaptation economic model, set of criteria, climate change, Mekong delta.

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ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE CITY 
IN VIET NAM: A CASE STUDY OF BAC NINH CITY, 
BAC NINH PROVINCE

Cung Hong Viet(1), Pham Thi Mai Thao(2), Bui Hoai Nam(3)
(1)Viet Nam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change
(2)Ha Noi University of Natural Resources and Environment
(3)Institute of Environmental Science, Viet Nam Environment Administration

Received: 6 July 2020; Accepted: 3 August 2020

Abstract: The aim of this study is to indicate the pathways and activities in reaching sustainable development in Viet Nam. In particular, the process of becoming an environmentally sustainable city in Bac Ninh city (11th goal - National action plan for implementing the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development) is analyzed. Viet Nam’s environmentally sustainable city criteria are selected as an assessment tool in this case study (introduced through the Prime Minister Decision No.196/QĐ-BTNMT on 18/02/2014). Documents and statistical data in this study were provided by the local authorities and companies located. The results showed that: (i) Viet Nam’s general efforts in sustainable development is significant. They are planned specifically, followed by a clear pathway and detail objectives together with particular action in the Viet Nam’s SDGs; (ii) With regards to Bac Ninh assessed results: Water indicators scored 400/500, atmospheric indicators scored 360/400, Solid Waste indicators, and Responding to Climate Change indicators are 260/300, and 240/400, correspondingly. Based on the assessment instructions, Bac Ninh city is ranked “Good” in relation to the Viet Nam’s environmentally sustainable city criteria. The study could be otherwise adopted for other regions of Viet Nam given the similarity and homogeneity of Bac Ninh City to other developing urban areas. The set of criteria could possibly be used as an assessment tool with the intention of assessing the Viet Nam national action plan for implementing the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. 

Keywords: Viet Nam, Bac Ninh, sustainable development, sustainable development goals, environmentally sustainable city, criteria, indicators.

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DEVELOPMENT OF A SET OF INDICATORS EVALUATING THE MODEL OF COMMUNITY - BASED MANAGEMENT OF DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY IN ADAPTING TO CLIMATE CHANGE
IN CA MAU PROVINCE

Pham Ngoc Anh(1), Huỳnh Thị Lan Hương(2)
(1)Office of Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment
(2)Viet Nam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate change

Received: 14 August 2020; Accepted: 31 August 2020

Abstract: In the context of climate change, Ca Mau province is facing to unstable water resources. So, it is requested to adjust and change the method of water resource management in order to adapt to climate change based on the community. Besides, strengthening socialization and governing towards the business model are important solutions to reduce water loss and waste and optimizing the State’s resources.

   This work therefore, proposes a set of indicators to help assessing the appropriateness of community-based water resource management models in the context of climate change. In addition, the research proposes and recommends activities and solutions to improve, develop models as well as enhance community capacity in water resource adapt to climate change based on the community management.

Keywords: Indicators, water resource management, climate change adaptation, community-based management.

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ASSESSMENT OF ADVERSE AGRO-CLIMATE CONDITIONS
FOR RICE 
PRODUCTION IN THE 2019 SUMMER-AUTUMN
ACROSS VIET NAM

Duong Van Kham, Nguyen Dang Mau, Trinh Hoang Duong, 
Nguyen Hong Son, Tran Thi Tam
Viet Nam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate change

Received: 19 July 2020; Accepted: 25 August 2020

Abstract: The data on daily sunshine hours, daily average temperature and daily precipitation collected from 143 meteorological stations across Viet Nam for 2018 and 2019 years is used for this studying. The effects of adverse weather conditions of light, temperature, wetness and drought during three main stages of rice growth and development in the 2019 summer-autumn is assessed and compared with the 2018 summer-autumn because rice varieties and cultivation conditions for two consecutive seasons are less different. Specifically, the assessment results show that adverse weather conditions affect the 2019 summer-autumn rice less than the one in 2018, which is one of the reasons contributing to the increase of 2019 rice productivity about 2 % compared with 2018.

Keywords: Adverse Agro-climate, rice production, 2019 summer-autumn.

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11

MAPPING 10 YEARS OF LAND COVER CHANGE
IN THE MEKONG DELTA

Ta Hoang Trung, Nguyen Van Tuan
Center of Survey and Mapping Data - Viet Nam 
Department of Survey, mapping and geographic information

Received: 9 July 2020; Accepted: 12 August 2020

Abstract: In the last decade, the Mekong delta has seen a significant decrease in the total area of the wetland due to the expansion of the paddy field, and aquaculture farms. The expansion negatively affected the biodiversity of the region, threaten the environment. To conserve the biodiversity of the region and reach sustainable development, authorities have to monitor the transformation process effectively, thus an updated land cover map is necessary. This research used free satellite data, open-source library, and machine learning algorithm to create 10-meter spatial resolution land cover map of the region 2007 and 2017... In this study, Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Sentinel-2, ALOS PALSAR, and PALSAR 2 mosaic, ALOS Global Digital Surface Model were employed to produce land cover map of the region by using Kernel Density Estimation classifier. Other ancillary data sources such as Open Street Map, regional geographical database was used as information supplement. To creating and validating the maps, 60,000 reference data points were created based on the field GPS photos as well as visual interpretation on Google Earth images. The overall accuracy of the maps is 82% and 84% in 2007 and 2017, respectively. The maps reveal the rapid loss of mangrove, mainly due to the expansion of aquaculture farms and the urban area between the two periods. The result also demonstrates the potentiality of automatically producing high-accuracy land cover maps in the large area.

Keywords: Land cover change, multi-temporal, machine learning.

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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PM10 CONCENTRATIONS AT URBAN LOCATION
IN HA NOI CITY 
FROM 2010 TO 2019

Nguyen Anh Dung(1), Duong Hong Son(2), Nguyen Dac Dong(3)(1)Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment
(2)Water Resources Institute
(3)Viet Nam Union of Geological Sciences

Received: 29 July 2020; Accepted: 26 August

Abstract: This paper evaluates the effects of meteorological factors including temperature, humidity, wind speed and precipitation on PM10 concentration at Nguyen Van Cu air quality monitoring station in Hanoi during the period of 2010-2019. The Spearman correlation coefficient between PM10 concentration and precipitation is negative implying an appearance of the washing effect. In addition, the relationships between PM10 concentration and wind speed as well as temperature are also inversely correlated which means when the air was stagnant, less disturbed and diffused due to low wind conditions, the concentration of PM10 would increase. Moreover, humidity has a positive correlation with PM10 concentration. Through the linear correlation analysis, it can be determined that most of the PM10 that appeared in the area had an anthropogenic origin, largely due to emissions from transportation activities.

Keywords: PM10 concentration, meteorology, air pollution, spearman.

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